Burundi faces endemic malaria, a generalised HIV epidemic and the challenge of a low TB detection. UNDP has been working with the government and national partners since the end of 2017 to address these challenges.


Malaria is endemic and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Burundi. The entire population is at risk of malaria, and pregnant women and children under the age of 5 are particularly vulnerable. Read more...

Data from the National Malaria Program (PNILP) shows a worsening of the situation since 2015, with a near-doubling of reported malaria cases, reaching 8.9 million in 2016, and remaining high in 2017. In March 2017, a malaria epidemic was declared by the Minister of Health, and a Malaria Emergency Plan was developed in collaboration with WHO, mobilizing partners for financial and technical assistance.

The main achievements of the Global Fund supported programme in 2016-2017 include: implementation of ICCM (integrated community case management) in 12 districts supported by The Global Fund (including trainings, equipment and remuneration), complementing 18 other districts supported by partners; the successful completion of a LLIN mass campaign in September 2017; and Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) carried out in 4 out of 11 eligible districts where pyrethroid resistance had been documented.

At the end of 2017 UNDP became principal recipient for the continuation of the grant. The interventions for the continuation of the programme are aligned with the objectives of the Malaria National Strategic Plan (2013-2017) and include: mass distribution campaigns for bed nets in all 46 districts; case management activities (diagnostics and treatment) through procurement of rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin-based combination therapy; integrated community case management (ICCM) in 12 districts which with partners activity covers all districts; scale-up of Intermittent Preventive Treatment during pregnancy; and the use of artesunate injectable to treat severe malaria. The grant also includes cross-cutting investments to support the country’s community health strategy, through the remuneration of community health workers.

10.5 million people at risk from malaria (entire population) (2016)

Source: World Health Organization

1.6 million estimated cases of malaria (2016)

Source: World Health Organization

4,700 estimated deaths due to malaria (2016)

Source: World Health Organization

HIV and Tuberculosis

TB incidence more than halved in Burundi between 2000 and 2016 (290 per 100,000 to 118). However, case detection is low at around 60%. The estimated burden of MDR-TB is 3.2% among new TB cases, and 14% among re-treatment cases. The prevalence of HIV amongst TB patients is 14% - currently 95% of TB patients receive HIV testing. Read more...

Burundi has a generalized HIV epidemic with concentrated sub-epidemics among high-risk populations. Prevalence was estimated at 1.1% in 2016 with past studies showing it to be higher amongst women and in urban areas. New HIV infections are particularly high among heterosexual couples (stable and casual partnerships), followed by sex workers (SW) and their clients, and men who have sex with men (modes of transmission study, UNAIDS 2013).

Burundi has received financial support from the Global Fund since 2003. UNDP is the Principal Recipient for the joint HIV/TB grant, working in close collaboration with the national programmes for HIV and TB, as well as with the NGO Croix-Rouge Burundaise. TB activities under this grant focus on increasing case detection and treatment of TB and MDR-TB during the period 2018-2020, and are aligned with the country’s National Strategic Plan for TB (2014-2020) and the joint TB-HIV action plan (2015-2017). Strategies include the increased access and use of new TB diagnostic techniques such as GeneXperts, the cooperation between the PNLT and the National AIDS Control Program (PNLS) for improved care among co-infected patients, and the continuation of the MDR-TB program. The proposed HIV interventions are aligned with the objectives of the National Strategic Plan for the fight against AIDS 2014-2017 (the plan for 2018-2022 is under development) and include: achieving universal access to prevention, treatment, care and support services for persons infected and affected by HIV, including key populations. This will be achieved through strengthening of the health and community systems to ensure service delivery to vulnerable and affected populations.

12,000 estimated incidence of TB (2016)

Source: World Health Organization

84,000 people living with HIV (2016)

Source: UNAIDS

1,500 estimated incidence of TB amongst people living with HIV (2016)

Source: World Health Organization